Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster | Wikipedia audio article



This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukushima_Daiichi_nuclear_disaster

00:04:02 1 Overview
00:12:44 2 Plant description
00:14:59 2.1 Cooling
00:17:29 2.2 Backup generators
00:19:35 2.3 Central fuel storage areas
00:20:10 2.4 Zircaloy
00:21:10 3 Prior safety concerns
00:21:20 3.1 1967: Layout of the emergency-cooling system
00:22:32 3.2 1991: Backup generator of Reactor 1 flooded
00:23:44 3.3 2000: Tsunami study ignored
00:24:20 3.4 2008: Tsunami study ignored
00:25:54 3.5 Vulnerability to earthquakes
00:27:13 4 Events
00:27:23 4.1 Tōhoku earthquake
00:28:53 4.2 Tsunami and flooding
00:30:22 4.3 Evacuation
00:31:41 4.4 Hydrogen explosions
00:32:21 4.5 Core meltdowns in units 1, 2, and 3
00:38:27 4.6 Damage to unit 4
00:39:42 4.7 Units 5 and 6
00:40:16 4.8 Central fuel storage areas
00:40:48 4.9 Radioactive contamination
00:54:49 4.9.1 Contamination in the eastern Pacific
00:56:29 5 Response
00:58:27 5.1 Poor communication and delays
01:06:04 6 Event rating
01:07:45 7 Aftermath
01:08:06 7.1 Risks from ionizing radiation
01:14:06 7.2 Thyroid screening program
01:20:35 7.2.1 Chernobyl comparison
01:21:56 7.3 Effects on evacuees
01:24:45 7.4 Radioactivity releases
01:25:51 7.5 Insurance
01:26:21 7.6 Compensation
01:27:20 7.7 Energy policy implications
01:37:05 7.8 Equipment, facility, and operational changes
01:40:37 8 Reactions
01:40:47 8.1 Japan
01:44:34 8.2 International
01:48:17 8.3 Investigations
01:50:43 8.3.1 NAIIC
01:52:03 8.3.2 Investigation Committee

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SUMMARY
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The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (福島第一原子力発電所事故, Fukushima Dai-ichi (pronunciation) genshiryoku hatsudensho jiko) was a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture. The disaster was the most severe nuclear accident since the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl disaster and the only other disaster to be given the Level 7 event classification of the International Nuclear Event Scale.The accident was started by the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. On detecting the earthquake, the active reactors automatically shut down their fission reactions. Because of the reactor trips and other grid problems, the electricity supply failed, and the reactors’ emergency diesel generators automatically started. Critically, they were powering the pumps that circulated coolant through the reactors’ cores to remove decay heat, which continues after fission has ceased. The earthquake generated a 14-meter-high tsunami that swept over the plant’s seawall and flooded the plant’s lower grounds around the Units 1–4 reactor buildings with sea water, filling the basements and knocking out the emergency generators. The resultant loss-of-coolant accidents led to three nuclear meltdowns, three hydrogen explosions, and the release of radioactive contamination in Units 1, 2 and 3 between 12 and 15 March. The spent fuel pool of previously shutdown Reactor 4 increased in temperature on 15 March due to decay heat from newly-added spent fuel rods; but did not boil down sufficiently to expose the fuel.In the days after the accident, radiation released to the atmosphere forced the government to declare an ever larger evacuation zone around the plant, culminating in an evacuation zone with a 20-kilometer radius. All told, some 154,000 residents evacuated from the communities surrounding the plant due to the rising off-site levels of ambient ionizing radiation caused by airborne radioactive contamination from the damaged reactors.Large amounts of water contaminated with radioactive isotopes were released into the Pacific Ocean during and after the disaster. Michio Aoyama, a professor of radioisotope geoscience at the Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, has estimated that 18,000 terabecquerel (TBq) of radioactive caesium 137 …

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